Gatekeeping the Last Best Place: Who Gets To Be A "Real" Montanan?

Montana rancher

When I was a kid, I don't remember Montanans hating California as much as they hated North Dakota. And it wasn't so much that they were afraid of invaders, which marks the current attitude against California, but that they thought North Dakotans were dumb flatlanders. I remember that we had a big orange book called "The North Dakota Joke Book," but any North Dakotan looking through it wouldn't have found much to laugh at. For instance, here's one of the wittiest: 

North Dakota Joke BookQ: Did you hear the Governor's Mansion in North Dakota burned down?
A: Almost took out the whole trailer park!

I thought it was funny as a kid, but I wasn't sure why.  We lived in a trailer park afterall.  

Sure, a lot of of them were pretty funny, and I still remember a lot of them by heart. Then I remember telling one to a kid from North Dakota who moved to Montana. One day on the schoolyard, I told him one of the jokes, a complicated little number about how there was a fancy restaurant in Minot called the Flaming Pit whereat they set your armpits on fire and gave you a bill. Once again, I didn't totally get it. The little guy burst into tears and ran off to tell the teacher.  

Apparently, he had been the butt of dozens of the jokes, and I wasn't the only one who told them to him. I was, however, the one that got in trouble.  

On some level, I still think the North Dakota jokes are funny - there's nothing there. But I do still think about that poor little tyke, reduced to tears because so many Montanans had to make him feel like shit because he wasn't from here.  

Montana grain elevator

Is there anything more insulting in Montana than the word "transplant?" It says volumes about the person against whom it's leveled. In short, it says they're not a "real Montanan." I don't know if any other state has so much at stake by being "real." Certainly it's hard to imagine a North Dakotan accusing another of not being a "real" North Dakotan - they all have to weather the same brutal winters and howling wind together.  

In Montana, calling someone a "transplant" suggests a constellation of gatekeeping possibilities. It might suggest that they're not outdoorsy enough, or that they're not hardy enough. It might mean their pickup is too small, or their fishing habits not zealous enough. It might even submit that the recipient is not knowledgeable enough about the state's geography. If you don't know where Two Dot is, you're not a "real Montanan." If you make more than X amount of income a year, you're not a real Montanan. Western Montanan thinks that the Eastern side of the state, bereft of the dramatic mountain ranges to which they're accustomed, are less real. Eastern Montana, in turn, think they're the real Montana, and that Western Montana is overrun with Californian real estate developers. 

Yellowstone promo stillMaybe the most dramatic recent example is the Paramount network's Yellowstone, a show that seems to posit that only millionaire ranch owners are the real Montana - in that show, Bozeman is as much a villain as the murderous cowboy mafia, meth-dealers and (of course) real-estate developers who fill out its rogues gallery. In Yellowstone, you know someone's a villain if they mention state or national parks, or if they so much as suggest that the Dutton Ranch, the mega-sized, billion-dollar Paradise Valley spread at its center, should be public or protected land.

For my part, I've lived in Montana my whole life, with the exception of second and third grade, when my dad's railroad job took him to (horror of horrors) North Dakota. Aside from that brief sojourn, I've lived here for 35 of my 37 years. But, because I was the kind of Montanan who preferred watching Jeremiah Johnson to actually going camping, I've often been called a not real Montanan.  

And that's even though I love Westerns, listen to Marty Robbins religiously, and have read A River Runs Through It four times. Nevermind that I've never gone fly-fishing - never even caught a fish, in fact. Recently, a man in a Carhartt hat and a lip full of snoose shouted at me that my 1992 Ford Crown Victoria, the best I can afford at the paltry sums I make as a freelance writer and retail manager, isn't a real vehicle - "real Montanans drive trucks!" For all that, I'd still like to say I'm a real Montanan. It makes me wonder if people in New York do the same thing - "WHAT? You've never had a bagel with lox? You're not a real New Yorker!"

wagon train of pioneers

I understand, of course, that the notion that transplants are somehow evil, or lesser, is a byproduct of the fraught world of Montana real estate - many feel that the state's best plots are being snatched up by out-of-state interests, leaving only the leftovers for the rest of us. And as someone who once lived in Bozeman until I was no longer able to afford the two-room apartment I occupied because the rent kept going up and up, I sympathize with that viewpoint. In fact, I'm not wholly unable to disagree with Yellowstone's vilification of Bozeman; it's true that the ski resorts, Yellowstone Club, and giant tech companies are making it pretty hard for the little guy to get by. In the odd duality of Belgrade and Bozeman, in which Belgrade looks at Bozeman as the bastion of the enemy, we have the "real" Montanan vs. transplant debate in miniature. Of course, Yellowstone name-checks Bozeman once per episode, and sometimes Livingston too, but to my knowledge has never even mentioned Belgrade - it's probably not pretty enough for the show's location scouts to consider it. 

Montana's profoundly divided politics compound the problem. A map of the state election results show a small handful of blue islands in a sea of red - but that's nothing all that different from other states, or even the whole country. Take Texas: for all the discussion on CNN and Fox News about how it's going blue, it remains a polka dot print of blue and red. I wonder: do some Texans think they're more real than others? I suppose they might. But then, I've heard a lot lately about great swaths of rural Texans, incensed at how Texas isn't the real Texas anymore, have upped and come to Montana. I also wonder if a "real" Texan gets to be counted as a "real" Montanan, or just a particularly odious transplant. After all, we're justifiably proud of Steinbeck's assertion that (and I'm paraphrasing here) Texas is just a fake Montana.

Two Cheyenne Graves at Little Bighorn

The absurdity of our situation is laid bare when we consider that only 6.5% of Montana's population is truly "native:" the other 93.5% of us moved here at some point. If we think we have it bad with all the out-of-staters coming here, imagine how pissed off the Indians were.  

But no, come to think of it, even the Native-Americans came here thousands of years ago, invading our beautiful land by way of the Bering Strait, not quite so underwater then, and then strolling all the way south through Canada until they got here and decided to set up shop. I guess the only "real" Montanans are bison, moose, wolf, elk, and squirrels. Certainly not the horse, which was brought here by transplants in the early 16th century. 

Forgive me, I'm getting a little carried away. I guess what I'm saying is that the idea that only some Montanans are real while others are somehow fictitious is untenable. Prick the fake ones, and you'll find they bleed. Take their money, and you'll find it spends. 

So it seems to me that the more relevant metric by which to judge other Montanans, if indeed we need to judge them at all, is by whether or not they're total jerks. If they come to Montana and throw beer cans on the side of the road (something, by the way, I've seen presumably "real" Montanans do), then they're probably jerks. If they come and try to pet a bison, or put their kids up on their shoulders for a great Instagram picture, that's not so smart either. Oh, and this one is for all the Native-Americans out there: if they promise to leave you alone and then shoot you and herd you onto ever-smaller plots of land, promising that it's yours forever and that the Great Father back east loves and cares for you even as you round them up and shoot them for doing a Ghost Dance, then by all means, look at them askew. 

For my money, we're all "real" Montanans. But some of us are more respectful than others. 

Rural Montana

Sherman Cahill is a freelance writer who lives in Butte, Montana.  He loves Westerns, books about Montana history, and the city of Butte, America.  But he's never caught a fish, never shot a deer, and can't tell a bluegill from a rainbow trout, except that one of them is probably bluer than the other.  But he'd still like you to consider him a real Montanan, if at all possible.  

Leave a Comment Here

Isabelle (not verified) , Thu, 02/11/2021 - 11:24
Great article. Thanks for the putting these thoughts out there!
Audrey Churchill (not verified) , Thu, 02/11/2021 - 13:10
Grew up in Lewiston Montana and Apgar village
Near west glacier. Fond memories of freedom to be a kid and roam and explore and investigate as a youth. Learned about wild life and geography and flora and fauna . Learned to hunt and fish and hike and water ski and ice skate and bike. Freedom to be a kid .
Don (not verified) , Thu, 02/11/2021 - 19:13
Grew up in Dillon and left to go to college. Afterwards, the military for 20 years and then a job with a federal agency in wildlife. Have been looking to come back to Montana after all this time. Would I be a transplant now even though the military and my job took me away from where I have always wanted to come back to?
Jim Cleary (not verified) , Thu, 10/21/2021 - 17:13
Buddy, your 20 years of military experience make you an authentic American ! ! ! AND You are A REAL AMERICAN IN ANY STATE YOU CHOOSE TO LIVE -- ANY AND ALL OF THEM. You are also special for having originated in the Great State of Montana.
I myself am A Native American, because I was BORN IN THIS COUNTRY. I was born of Irish and German 3RD GENERATION immigrant parents IN THEIR HOME IN ATKINSON NEBRASKA in 1947. ("Things were lean, for Buffalo and Me . . . ") (Behind the Big Chair, Dad would always say . . .). So, THAT MAKES ME "Native American" !!! I'M ALSO A COMBAT MARINE (VIETNAM, '66-'67), so no one should tell me that I'm Not Native American, because I certainly AM. ALL THIS LAND - AMERICA - IS SACRED TO ME, AND IT SHOULD BE TO OTHERS AS WELL. THAT IS NOT A PROPERTY-RIGHTS CLAIM; IT'S A FACT ! ! !
Diane Kizer Hernon (not verified) , Fri, 02/12/2021 - 07:12
Thank you! I was born in northern Idaho and grew up in several small towns in Idaho and Montana. My dad was with the forest service. When he retired, he was supervisor of Panhandle National forests. He was born in California. When I graduated from college, I moved to San Diego California. Ten years ago we bought a tiny cabin in Priest River Idaho. This year we moved to Trout Creek Montana. I get guff for being from California from some “jerks” in both states, but there are a lot of lovely people who are welcoming. I love it here!
Kathryn (not verified) , Wed, 03/24/2021 - 09:49
I’m live in Maryland but enjoy visiting Montana when I can. One thing I notice when I’m there is that people say “I’m a fourth generation Montanan” or “3rd generation Montanan” and so on. I just figured that they are trying to establish just how Montanan they are by how long their family has been there. A status thing.
Jim Cleary (not verified) , Thu, 10/21/2021 - 17:15
YUP, 3rd or 4th generation Montanan is real HIGH STATUS in my ledger !
Nikki (not verified) , Wed, 03/24/2021 - 14:22
This is SO good, this article has needed to be written for a long time! And how's this..I grew up in Fargo, but my family came out here in the late 80's and started what came to be one of the largest employers in Kalispell. While they were setting up shop, my job transferred me to California...and guess what - NO ONE you meet in California is from California, it's full of Montanans, North Dakotans, Minnesotans, etc etc. But no one complains in California! =) Now I'm 'home' on the ranch in Eureka Montana. Come join us, we feel lucky to be able to share this beautiful state and love hosting folks no matter where you're from!
Tom (not verified) , Thu, 03/25/2021 - 10:23
Real Montanans drive their old beater cars like they were a pickup.
Pappy Yokum (not verified) , Thu, 03/25/2021 - 19:18
The great Montana historian, K. Ross Toole, whos books are required reading for "real" Montanans, writes about the onerous outside influences on Montana. From the copper kings to the forest barrons. All outside influences that have come in and taken from Montana. Rich folk moving here has been happening all my life. The only thing that keeps the flood at bay are the winters. This current batch hasnt been blessed with such a happening. Yet.
Vicki Larson (not verified) , Thu, 03/25/2021 - 22:06
I live in Texas now (in a mostly blue dot, thank God), but I grew up and went to HS in Miles City, and that will always be “home” to me. Am I a real Montanan?
JP Flood (not verified) , Fri, 03/26/2021 - 07:12
I ask folks: Do the names Mansfield, K. Ross Toole, Russell, Doig, Kemmis, Baucus, Williams, yup even Tom Power... Mean anything to you? If they carry meaning - you're in ?
Mike Mitchell (not verified) , Mon, 03/29/2021 - 20:55
It’s all about people. If they move here and care a bit about their neighbors, take time to know montanans, they become montanans. If they buy huge tracts of land, put up new fences and act line they own the state, they are deservedly, transplants.
Ellie (not verified) , Tue, 04/26/2022 - 13:58
Absolutely true!
Lori Hartford … (not verified) , Thu, 05/27/2021 - 16:05
I’m proud to say that I’m Montanan bred and born. That said I come from people who were all Montanan 3 generations back. Prior to that I have ancestors who fought in the Revolutionary War and prior to that were immigrants from Ireland, England, Germany and a few other countries. My point is that all Montanans are products of immigration from somewhere with the exception of the American Indians who indeed had their lands and way of life stolen from them as the west was settled. I believe anyone who lives in Montana or once did can call themselves Montanan! I don’t like seeing the cost of living in Bozeman being so high that my son and his family can no longer afford to live there now that he’s graduated. He is looking outside of Montana for work which will take my granddaughters too far away for my liking (unless he takes a potential job as a mechanical engineer in Laurel. Although I enjoy the show Yellowstone it’s mainly because I like Kevin Costner, the show makes it appear that Montana’s State Government is fraught with corruption; that I do not like!! That’s my two cents worth. We truly live in God’s country from the far west edge to the Far East end!!!
Georgia Gannon (not verified) , Mon, 07/19/2021 - 08:57
This. Is. Perfect. Thanks for this. I was raised on a ND (yup--a flatlander) farm, graduated from a ND university, then taught school for 18 years in MT. Married a "real Montanan" (Wibaux, so barely!) and have lived more years in MT than the other states we moved to with my husband's work: CA (AHHHHHHHH) and WA. Settled back in Dillion, MT now, and I have a 406 number I must be a REAL Montanan! The best take on your writing: Don't be a jerk. Kindness and caring wins again! I'm hoping to find more of your writings! Thanks again. GG
Marilyn (not verified) , Mon, 07/19/2021 - 11:29
Why would Montana people hate North Dakota? That makes Montana look bad.
Lauri Campbell… (not verified) , Wed, 07/21/2021 - 14:49
We didn’t actually hate them, as kids we all read the North Dakotan Joke book. It was highly sought after in the library! We just though the jokes were funny, but somehow we knew that the North Dakotans would feel the same way we did. I still have mine, but it’s got a green cover not orange ;)
Lauri Campbell… (not verified) , Wed, 07/21/2021 - 14:36
Great job on your article! I’d like to read more!!
As a little aside, I’d like to share that I haven’t lived in Montana for 30 years, but I still call myself a Montanan. My people were one of the very first pioneers in Park County. My mom and Grandma Maxey McKean loved to be involved with Sons and Daughters of Montana Pioneers. Myself and my two brothers were all born in Bozeman, when it was a place no one had ever heard of, when there were no direct flights, and nothing famous ever happened. But time marched on, movies started to be made there, movie stars started to fall in love with their temporary movie-star trailer’s locations, and before anyone knew what was happening, kids growing up in Bozeman couldn’t afford to buy their own parents homes. I think what stands out to me about Montanans (I’ll leave the word real out) is respect for our resources, knowing the value of the fish hatchery, respecting fire ? warnings, genuinely caring about the beauty of nature and the people who will be fishing, camping, climbing, skiing, etc, after you leave a space. The city planners and those in charge of rent regulations, Landlord Tennant laws need to be held accountable to protect those who just want to lay their heads in the town they either grew up in, or grew to love later on in life. I think the unfair rage and frustration is misplaced so easily in the “Real Montanan” debate. The frustration so many feel, is truly more properly debated as the more uncomfortable topic of wealth and great wealth vs. the average guy just trying to make a living.
Karen Cavanaugh (not verified) , Wed, 07/21/2021 - 19:20
Not hated, just made good stupid jokes to laugh easy. Wy tells the same but subs in Montana for ND.
Jan (not verified) , Thu, 08/26/2021 - 11:54
Great article. Sadly as the world turns brings more liberals into the state. Leave the notions that you hated where you leave. Don't then try and change where you are going.
Patty (not verified) , Thu, 08/26/2021 - 20:00
Hi! Enjoyed your article—and yes, we enjoyed telling ND jokes, much to my mother’s chagrined as that was where she came from.
Geri Sunderlin (not verified) , Sat, 08/28/2021 - 10:54
Interesting article. I grew up in Santa Clara California where everyone was Catholic and either Portuguese or Italian decent. I am only a 2nd generation America. So the author's story could be anywhere USA. Life changes. I joined the US Army during the Vietnam war. I was only 1 of 15 women in a small post in Campo Darby, Italy. After getting the bug to travel I went all over the world and lived in various other states. When I was a kid I read a book about Montana. After visiting Montana with my husband for the first time, I was in love with Montana. I always wanted to move here since I was a kid. I loved the core conservative values, the friendly people, the beautiful mountains, outdoor activities here. My point is I have been all over the world and Montana has always been my favorite state. It is more about your additude and respect for it's people that makes the difference if you are a true Montanan or not. I have no plans to change it. I am happy here in Montana. Montana is my forever home. I am proud to say I am now a Montanan.
Dennis Erickson (not verified) , Wed, 10/04/2023 - 12:37
From your words I can state: "You're a Montanan."
Mr Kelly (not verified) , Tue, 08/31/2021 - 10:46
Thank you for your article; I’ve spent my life since age 19 Iserving our country and recently bought 5 acres outside of Missoula and am looking forward to retiring in Montana. It’s a surreal dream, my Grandparents left in the 80’s to Washington State for work in the Naval Shipyard and to raise 5 children where it’s not as cold. They were born and raised in Augusta and Anaconda Montana.
Milana Marsenich (not verified) , Fri, 09/03/2021 - 00:22
Grew up in Butte here. Montanan through and through. Being from Butte, I can’t help saying it lol. Great article. Thank you for it. I never caught a fish either, even though my dad tried to teach me.
Randall Terri (not verified) , Sun, 10/24/2021 - 12:47
Born and raised in Bozeman, as was my father, my children and grandchildren . Lived there all my life, 63 years and yes, very sad to see the rude and ignorant people with liberal values take over my home town. The new city council, which is supposed to reflect its citizens, wants to turn Bozeman into a sanctuary city, they talk about letting boys use girls Locker rooms and visa versa like that’s a good thing. They attack our 2nd amendment, attack our right to free speech, our rights to freedom of religion, and want open borders. They send unvetted refugees into our cities. How’s Dearborn MI turned out? The use the constitution as a piece of paper to be tweaked and made to fit a liberal, globalist agenda. That is NOT the Montana way and that is exactly why I moved from my hometown and the people I loved who loved me.
Mike Bannister (not verified) , Mon, 11/29/2021 - 13:01
You are a true Montana man, who like everyone, has faults. Loved you article and know you will impact others. Thank you.
RLD454 (not verified) , Wed, 01/05/2022 - 07:54
Hoping for a real winter so we can get some winter kill on these imports . Montana is better served when they visit and leave .
Cherie Monfort… (not verified) , Tue, 01/18/2022 - 16:58
As a 6th generation Montanan, both on my father's and mother's side, my heart has never left the land,,,,the land has always owned my heart.....I was born and raised in Bozeman/Gallatin Gateway on (at one time) one of the largest purebred Hereford ranches in the mother's family settled the Ruby valley (Sheridan/Virginia City) hurts to share the land with outsiders but we knew that we couldn't keep Montana a secret forever, it is understandable why people are migrating to southwest's truly God's country....
SHAWNA DAWSON (not verified) , Wed, 01/19/2022 - 09:56
I was born and raised in Kalispell, MT. I have moved away sense but I go back all the time to see my family. Every time I go back I feel like I never left. My family lives out of town which makes it nice sense the town has grown so much. I am proud to be a Montanan
Jim (not verified) , Mon, 04/25/2022 - 11:17
The real issue is that Boz Angeles is trying to change the political landscape. Montana has been hunting, trapping and fishing since people showed up on this land. We will see Boz Angeles trying to change things specifically trapping, hunting and fishing mostly because of their ignorance.
Andrea (not verified) , Mon, 04/25/2022 - 11:57
Thanks for a good article article. What is sad about the transplants is they are trying to make changes. We can be embarrassed by the out of staters who have been voted into office. I have always been proud that our governor's and congressmen we're from Montana representing Montana. Today too many are representing their political beliefs and not our wonderful state. Keep Montana wonderful!
Oldbirdhntr (not verified) , Mon, 04/25/2022 - 18:49
I was born and raised in North Carolina. Over the past few decades I have had the privilege of hunting waterfowl and upland birds in Montana. It’s truly the most beautiful place I’ve ever visited and I would have loved to live there but my desire to live near my parents, children and grandchildren kept that from happening. I have profound admiration for the state and the people who help make it what it is. I’ve always found that being friendly, respectful and grateful when visiting has served me well. And I have received the same from virtually everyone I’ve met in Montana. You’re all blessed to live there.
Kenneth Stringer (not verified) , Mon, 04/25/2022 - 19:26
I was born in Texas, so when someone asks where are you from it is what your birth certificate says.... I moved here 11 years ago. I LOVE it. I didn't want anything to change. I wanted to learn from the 'montana folks'. It is a very special place!
California Gol… (not verified) , Thu, 04/28/2022 - 10:48
As a new bride I was asked forty years ago to help to save a portion of the original family homestead--which I did. My DH is 5th generation of the first homesteading family in this part of the state. We married in 1982 and I am still an outcast in the family--I am respectful of differing opinions, which is an ideology that non of my husband's family see the need for--I am not a democrat. But, the woman who saved the family spread wasn't either! Because I had the financial ability to help save the homestead I am considered repugnant. Without asking they "borrow" whatever they want from our place and don't return it. I suppose that's because I am such a "capitalist pig". Most of them work in schools, or government jobs. The women in my family have cleaned houses, done hair, worked for care, and my DD is the one who made it big in the design field. She only works 10 hours a day six days a week. No government retirement for her--so, she is "not one of us"! I have never once mentioned money to these people. The money I did have came from hard working hands of women--but, not women working for the state. Not women with a university degree--so, they don't count--not "real Montanans"! Let's face the facts: to be considered a "real Montanan" in today's world you have to be working in a union position and a dedicated socialist.
Audrey (not verified) , Tue, 09/27/2022 - 15:01
Butte and Anaconda were different from most of the State in that the people did not come here to be cowboys or farmers. In Anaconda, you were a boomer unless you were "born" here!! I have found a reference in the last year that the term was never applied until the folks from North Dakota came during the Depression!! Thought that was pretty funny. On a more serious note, the contempt for newbies all boiled down to who was the last bunch to arrive - at least in this area!! Not black, red, yellow or white, but which batch just arrived! The last ones here more or less were North Dakota farmers escaping the dust bowl.
Michelle Cornellier (not verified) , Thu, 09/28/2023 - 12:59
I find it very interesting that in the last few years, there has been more and more articles of this kind. We seem to have to define or redefine everything. Up until a few years ago, Montana had less then 1 million folks, which by the way, Montanans loved and laughed about. I believe that moving to different regions and states gives the opportunity to respect the people in that place. The statement, “we are all Americans or immigrants “ is always said in reaction to articles like this, but misses the point. My great grandfather immigrated from Norway, homesteaded on the northern prairie of MT for seven years with the hope of land and to become a citizen. It was no small feat. He loved MT and the U.S. and passed that down to us. I’m a 4th generation Montanan, who respects what my family did. It placed something indelible in us. My mother’s family is native. She also gave us an appreciation for this wild, untamed land and asked us to not forget where and who we came from. I’m proud to be a Montanan and respect those that love and appreciate the folks that have left a door open for others.
Dennis Erickson (not verified) , Wed, 10/04/2023 - 12:50
Stating you are a (third, fourth) generation Montanan is a way of saying you are aware of and have participated in the unique characteristics of a way of life here, things like hunting, fishing, working in a hayfield, tending livestock, fighting a forest fire, understanding the Indian people, knowing whether or not you're a 'cowboy' and accepting the realization you aren't a cowboy but that it's OK to wear a cowboy hat and boots anyway. It's like a suited up attorney from Delaware saying he graduated from Harvard Law School. It defines him/her as something. It's when that identity is disregarded and disrespected as something insignificant and meaningful that we Montanans buck a little. We want you here only if you like it here as it currently exists. If you want to change things dramatically, frankly, stay away. I took history from the great K.Ross Toole whose final exhortation to his 300-plus class of history freshmen was to fight against the powers that would strip our state of its character in a relentless reach for wealth. The show 'Yellowstone" is the current iteration of the Anaconda Mining Company that stripped the wealth from the Berkeley Pit in Butte and left us the tailings, the putrid water in the gaping pit and countless deaths from the careless mining of the area by hideous disease and pounding poverty. Thanks Kevin Costner. For nothing at all. You can take the money and leave now. But please, don't come back here.
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